First Aid 3

Know how to give First Aid in following situations. Shock, Fainting, Bleeding from the nose, stings and bites, minor cuts, Burns, scalding, drowning, control of sudden fire, electric shock,

Key points

  1. The heat beat of an average human is 72-80 beats per minute

  2. When treating a patient you as the first aider must remain calm and decisive

  3. Always call for help as first aid is only a temporary solution to the problem

  4. Always asses the emergency situation before rushing in

  5. Always asses yourself in accordance to the situation

  6. Identify yourself as a first aider before taking any action

  7. Make sure the patient is safe and calm

  8. Educate the professionals such as the medics or the doctors on the situation and what treatment you administered

  9. In an emergency, take leadership as a first aider


Shock can in a way, can classified as a dangerous condition that has in many instances, lead to death. This condition comes with almost all kinds of injuries.

Causes for shock

  • Allergy

  • Fear

  • Pain

  • High Fever

Some people can go into shock more easily then others. Usually a person suffering from shock becomes instantaneously unconscious. Lay him down immediately on the floor, put his head to one side and keep him warm. Also make sure that his feet are higher then his head. Call immediately for help.


Bleeding is usually minor in nature but can sometimes impose serious threat if a large vein or artery has been injured.

  • External Bleeding

    • Amputation

    • Crush injury

    • Nose Bleed

    • Abrasion (Graze)

    • Punture wound

  • Internal Bleeding

External bleeding

Generally, bleeding is of a minor nature and includes small cuts, grazes, etc.

However, bleeding may be severe and life threatening if a large vein or artery has been injured – e.g. the jugular vein in the neck.

Some wounds are associated with other injuries beneath the skin – e.g. an organ injured by a stabbing; broken bones which have pierced the skin.

Symptoms and signs – Not all may be present

  • a wound with, or without, an embedded foreign object

  • pain from skin surface wounds

  • bruising or discolouration of the skin

  • loss of normal function in the injured area

  • pale, cold, sweaty skin

How you can help

1. Apply direct pressure to the bleeding wound

  • Apply firm pressure over the wound. Use a sterile or clean bulky pad and apply it firmly with hand pressure. Apply a bandage to keep the dressing in place.

  • If bleeding is severe, DO NOT waste time looking for suitable padding, but be prepared to use the patient’s hand or your hand to hold the wound together if the patient is unable to do this unaided.

2. Raise the injured area

  • If the wound is on a limb, raise it in a supported position to reduce blood flow to the injured area.

  • If an arm is injured, you could apply an arm sling or elevation sling.

Try to avoid any direct contact with the patient’s blood or other body fluids. Use disposable gloves if possible. If gloves are not available, place your hands inside a plastic bag.

  • If there has been any contact with blood or any other body fluids, wash your hands or any blood splashed on the skin thoroughly with soap and water as soon as possible after the incident.

  • If you are concerned about a possible risk of infection, obtain advice from your doctor as soon as possible.

3. If a foreign body is embedded in the wound

  • DO NOT remove it but apply padding on either side of the object and build it up to avoid pressure on the foreign body.

  • Hold the padding firmly in place with a roller bandage or folded triangular bandage applied in a criss-cross method to avoid pressure on the object.

4. Keep the patient at total rest

  • Even if the injury involves the arm or upper part of the body, the patient should rest in a position of greatest comfort for at least 10 minutes to help control the bleeding.

5. Seek medical assistance

  • If the wound appears to be minor and the patient is able to travel by car, arrange an urgent appointment with a local doctor to assess and treat the injury.

If the injury is severe or the patient is very unwell – call 1990 for an ambulance as soon as possible.

While waiting for an ambulance to arrive, observe the patient closely for any change in condition.

6. If blood leaks through the pressure pad and bandage

  • Apply a second pad over the first. Use a tea towel or similar bulky fabric and apply maximum pressure to the area.

  • For major uncontrolled bleeding quickly remove the blood-soaked pad and bandage and replace with a fresh bulky pad and bandage. The continuing bleeding may be due to the pad slipping out of position when the first bandage was applied.

Wounds that need special care


How you can help

Call 1990 for an ambulance.

1. Control any bleeding

  • Use a bulky pad and apply it firmly to the bleeding area. Raise if possible.

2. Recover the severed part

  • If possible, gently place it into a plastic bag. Seal the bag with a little air inside to protect the severed part with a ‘cushion’ of air.

  • Place the inflated bag into a container or bucket of cold water to which several ice cubes have been added.

  • Ensure the severed part is transferred to hospital with the patient.

Crush injury


A crush injury occurs from compression of large muscle groups and soft tissues by a heavy weight. The most serious sites for a crush injury to occur are the head, neck, chest, abdomen and thigh.

How you can help

Call 1990 for an ambulance.

1. Remove the crushing force

  • Remove the crushing force if possible because permanent tissue damage may occur with severe crushing force.

  • If the crushing force has been in place for some time, be prepared to give prompt first aid, because removal of the crushing force may cause a sudden collapse or deterioration in the patient’s condition.

2. Treat the patient’s injuries

  • Assess and treat any injuries in order of their importance.

  • Control any bleeding with a sterile pad applied firmly to the injured area.

  • Assist the patient into the position of greatest comfort and use soft padding to provide support for the injured part.

  • If a limb is involved, support and immobilise the injured area.

  • While waiting for the ambulance to arrive, observe the patient closely for any change in condition.

Nose bleed


A blow to the nose, flying at high altitude, or scuba diving may all cause a bleeding nose.

For a child, always check whether there is a foreign body present – e.g. a bead or coin. If this has occurred, seek prompt medical advice and DO NOT try to remove the object yourself because this may cause further damage.

If bleeding is due to a head injury – e.g. a fractured skull – call 111 for an ambulance urgently.

How you can help

1. Apply firm pressure, elevation and rest

  • The patient needs to hold the head well forward and breathe through the mouth while pinching the entire soft part of the nose for 10 to 20 minutes.

  • The patient must be sitting down and at total rest until the bleeding stops.

Apply firm pressure, elevation and rest

If bleeding continues after 20 minutes of pressure, continue the pressure and call for an ambulance.

A cold compress can be used.

2. Once the bleeding has stopped

  • Tell the patient not to blow their nose for a few hours because this may restart the bleeding.

Other wounds

An abrasion (graze)

How you can help

  • Gently clean with soapy water or saline. If there are pieces of gravel embedded in the wound, ask the patient to try to remove them while the area is soaking in soapy water.

  • Dry the area well by blotting with gauze swabs or a pad of tissues.

  • If a protective dressing is necessary, apply a non-adherent sterile dressing and fix it in place with a light roller bandage or tape.

A puncture wound

How you can help

  • Clean the wound with warm soapy water and allow it to penetrate the puncture track because tetanus spores may be trapped deep in the wound.

  • Allow the wound to dry thoroughly in the air before covering it.

  • If a protective dressing is needed, use a porous adhesive dressing and change it daily to keep the wound healthy and dry.

Contact a local doctor for advice about tetanus immunisation.

Internal Bleeding


Internal bleeding is often difficult for the first aider to recognize. This type of bleeding can occur without an obvious wound and can be very serious as it is difficult to stop without surgical intervention.

Internal bleeding occurs when blood vessels within the body are ruptured and blood escapes out of the circulatory system. It may follow such incidents as a blow to the head, chest, or abdomen due to a fall or being struck by a vehicle. Internal bleeding should be suspected when blood is seen in vomit, urine, sputum or faeces.

Symptoms and signs – Not all may be present

  • rapid and ‘gasping’ breaths

  • increasing thirst

  • frothy red blood coughed up from the lungs, blood-stained vomit like ‘coffee grounds’, red or rust-coloured urine, or dark faeces like tar

  • pale, cold, sweaty skin

How you can help

  1. Place the patient at total rest

    1. Assist the patient into the position of greatest comfort.

    2. Cover the patient with a blanket to maintain body heat.

    3. Place protective fabric underneath the patient if the surface is rough, cold or hot – e.g. a coat if the patient is lying on a road.

Call 1990 for an ambulance.

  1. While waiting for the ambulance

  • Manage any other injuries.

  • Ensure that all restrictive clothing has been loosened, especially at the neck and waist.

  • Keep any bystanders clear.

  • Reassure the patient.

  • DO NOT allow the patient to eat, drink or smoke.


Bites are made by an animal jaw or mouth parts – e.g. a dog or spider. A venomous animal uses stinging apparatus combined with the injection of venom – e.g. jellyfish, bee or wasp.

Symptoms and signs – Not all may be present

  • pain

  • swelling of the bite or sting area

  • discolouration of the affected area

  • altered sensation – e.g. numbness or ‘pins and needles’

  • nausea or vomiting

  • headache

  • blurred or double vision

  • muscle weakness or paralysis

  • breathing difficulty

Bites and stings that need special care

Spider, ant and centipede bites

Katipo or red-back spider bites spider may cause pain and illness to a baby or small child, but are not a threat to life in normal circumstances.

Antivenom is available in some hospitals but is rarely needed.

White-tailed spider bites may be very painful but do not cause ulceration of the skin as commonly feared.

How you can help

1. Apply cold treatment

  • Wash the bitten area well to remove any remaining venom from the skin.

  • Keep the patient still to reduce the toxic effects of the venom.

  • Apply a wrapped ice pack for up to 10 minutes at a time, or a cold compress that has been soaked in water to which a few ice cubes have been added. An ice pack should be wrapped in a damp cloth to get the best effect from the ice and to avoid burning the skin. A cold compress should be changed whenever it becomes warm.

2. Raise a bitten limb

  • If the bite is on a limb, raise it to limit swelling.

  • If an arm or hand is involved, apply an elevation sling to provide comfort and support.

3. Seek medical advice

  • Seek prompt medical advice if the patient is a baby or young child.

If the pain becomes severe or the patient becomes ill with a fever, headache, nausea or vomiting – call 1990 for an ambulance.

Bee or Wasp Stings

Bees have only one stinging barb that is left in the skin following the incident. The venom sac is attached to the barb and continues to inject venom until it is empty. For this reason the barb should be removed as soon as possible (see below). How the barb is removed is not important.

Wasps do not leave a detached barb in the skin but inflict multiple stings, thus increasing the amount of venom injected. The danger with bee and wasp stings is that stings around the mouth, throat or face can swell and cause airway obstruction. Also, some people have an allergic reaction to bee venom and may collapse within 2 or 3 minutes after a sting, requiring resuscitation and urgent medical treatment.

How you can help

1. Remove the barb

  • If stung by a bee, immediately brush, pluck or scrape the barb off the skin to stop any more venom being injected. How the barb is removed is less important than removing the barb quickly.

2. Apply cold treatment

  • Immediately apply a wrapped ice pack and leave it in place for up to 10 minutes. Reapply the ice pack at frequent intervals or whenever pain relief is needed.

3. Raise the bitten area

  • Raise the bitten area as high as possible to limit the swelling that will occur.

  • If an arm or hand has been stung, apply an elevation sling to provide comfort and support.

4. Seek medical advice

  • Contact a local doctor for advice.

If the patient is known to be allergic to the venom – call 1990 for an ambulance and assist the patient with any prescribed treatment.

Observe the patient closely for any change in condition. If any of the warning signs of an allergic reaction appear, send for an ambulance urgently.

The warning signs include:

  • a fine rash over the trunk

  • wheezing or coughing

  • swelling around the face, eyes and neck

Cat or dog bite

Domestic animal bites usually cause an infected wound. Although the wound may be small, medical advice is recommended, and antibiotics are often prescribed and a protective tetanus injection given.

How you can help

1. Control any bleeding

  • If the wound is bleeding apply a firm pad.

Seek urgent medical advice and treatment.

2. Clean a minor wound thoroughly

  • Use warm soapy water or a saline solution to clean the wound.

  • Apply a protective dressing and seek medical advice.

Burns and Scalding

Contact with any source of heat can cause a burn or scald injury. A burn can result from contact with a heat source such as hot metal or electricity, hot liquid or steam. Clothing over the area may retain the heat and cause further injury.

Symptoms and signs – Not all may be present

  • severe pain

  • red, peeling or blistered skin (or blackened if caused by electricity)

  • watery fluid weeping from the injured area

  • the patient may be pale, cold and sweaty, feeling faint and dizzy, and complaining of nausea or vomiting

  • swelling of the injured area may appear later

How you can help

1. Remove the heat source from the patient, or the patient from the heat source, whichever is easiest and safest. 2. Cool the injured area

  • Immediately cool the injured area for a minimum of 20 minutes using cool running water from a tap or shower. In the absence of water use any cool clean fluid such as beer or soft drink.

  • A first aid burn gel may be applied, but this should be after cooling with water (as above), provided water is available.

  • If any clothing is wet with hot liquid or affected by a chemical splash, remove it quickly and carefully.

  • Remove any tight clothing, watches, rings or jewellery from the injured area, if possible, because of the risk of swelling.

If the patient is badly injured, or the burn is causing significant pain, or involves the eyes, or is larger than half the patient’s arm – call 1990 for an ambulance.

See a doctor if the burn is causing ongoing significant pain, or involves the face, hands, joints or genitals.

3. Position patient

  • If the patient is feeling faint lay them down.

  • The injured part (depending on the location of the burn) can be placed in a bowl or bucket of cold water if this is easier than pouring water over the burn.

4. Apply a sterile dressing

  • After cooling the injured area for up to 20 minutes, apply a sterile dressing.

  • Use a non-adherent dressing or a piece of clean plastic kitchen wrap.

  • DO NOT break blisters or remove peeled skin.

  • DO NOT try to remove any fabric that is stuck to a burn.

  • DO NOT apply creams, ointments, lotions or butter to any burn injury because infection may occur and complicate the injury.

  • DO NOT place small children or babies in a cold bath or shower for a full 20 minutes, as this can cause hypothermia.

Remember that any substance applied to a burn injury may have to be removed later in hospital and may also delay the healing process.

Avoid using adhesive tape on the skin around the burn because this may cause further tissue damage.

Fore more information on Burns please proceed to this link

Electric Shock

The danger from an electrical shock depends on the type of current, how high the voltage is, how the current traveled through the body, the person's overall health and how quickly the person is treated.

An electrical shock may cause burns, or it may leave no visible mark on the skin. In either case, an electrical current passing through the body can cause internal damage, cardiac arrest or other injury. Under certain circumstances, even a small amount of electricity can be fatal.

When to contact your doctor

A person who has been injured by contact with electricity should be seen by a doctor.


  • Don't touch the injured person if he or she is still in contact with the electrical current.

  • Call 1990 or your local emergency number if the source of the burn is a high-voltage wire or lightning. Don't get near high-voltage wires until the power is turned off. Overhead power lines usually aren't insulated. Stay at least 20 feet (about 6 meters) away — farther if wires are jumping and sparking.

  • Don't move a person with an electrical injury unless he or she is in immediate danger.

When to seek emergency care

Call 1990 or your local emergency number if the injured person experiences:

  • Severe burns

  • Confusion

  • Difficulty breathing

  • Heart rhythm problems (arrhythmias)

  • Cardiac arrest

  • Muscle pain and contractions

  • Seizures

  • Loss of consciousness

Take these actions immediately while waiting for medical help:

  • Turn off the source of electricity, if possible. If not, move the source away from you and the person, using a dry, nonconducting object made of cardboard, plastic or wood.

  • Begin CPR if the person shows no signs of circulation, such as breathing, coughing or movement.

  • Try to prevent the injured person from becoming chilled.

  • Apply a bandage. Cover any burned areas with a sterile gauze bandage, if available, or a clean cloth. Don't use a blanket or towel, because loose fibers can stick to the burns.


Call 1990 if:

  • Someone is drowning

1. Get Help

  • Notify a lifeguard, if one is close. If not, ask someone to call 119.

  • If you are alone, follow the steps below.

2. Move the Person

  • Take the person out of the water.

3. Check for Breathing

  • Place your ear next to the person's mouth and nose. Do you feel air on your cheek? follow DRABC procedure

  • Look to see if the person's chest is moving.

4. If the Person is Not Breathing, Check Pulse

  • Check the person's pulse for 10 seconds.

5. If There is No Pulse, Start CPR

Carefully place person on back.

  • For an adult or child, place the heel of one hand on the center of the chest at the nipple line. You can also push with one hand on top of the other. For an infant, place two fingers on the breastbone.

  • For an adult or child, press down at least 2 inches. Make sure not to press on ribs. For an infant, press down about 1 and 1/2 inches. Make sure not to press on the end of the breastbone.

  • Do chest compressions only, at the rate of 100-120 per minute or more. Let the chest rise completely between pushes.

  • Check to see if the person has started breathing.

Note that these instructions are not meant to replace CPR training. Classes are available through the American Red Cross, local hospitals, and other organizations.

6. Repeat if Person Is Still Not Breathing

  • If you've been trained in CPR, you can now open the airway by tilting the head back and lifting the chin.

  • Pinch the nose of the victim closed. Take a normal breath, cover the victim's mouth with yours to create an airtight seal, and then give 2 one-second breaths as you watch for the chest to rise.

  • Give 2 breaths followed by 30 chest compressions.

  • Continue this cycle of 30 compressions and 2 breaths until the person starts breathing or emergency help arrives.

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